Kilka refleksji na temat różnic indywidualnych – z perspektywy psychologa
Rocznik: 2007 Tom: 13 Numer: 2
In distinction to representatives of exact sciences the subject being studied by psychologists is unique – there do not exist on our globe two individuals (except monozygotic twins –with some reservation, however) who are genetically the same. Researchers of individual differences (ID) concentrate in their studies on such psychological characteristics which are common for given species (mostly for man) and play important adaptive functions, but on the other hand show variability, it is individual differences within the same species. One of the most crucial issues bothering researchers in this field of study since Galton over a century ago formulated the famous question “Nature or Nurture?” is the origin of individual differences. Among other things studies conducted during the last decades have shown that genes contribute about 50% to the variance (ID) of intelligence and between 30% and 60% to personality traits, including temperament. Sources of some misunderstandings regarding the heritability of individual differences in these characteristics, especially in intelligence have been discussed.