Efekt pogorszenia pamiętania treści związanych z wymogami problemu a hipoteza przedświadomej selekcji pomysłów
Rocznik: 1999 Tom: 5 Numer: 2
In a former experiment by the author, subjects solved a simple divergent problem, performing an ostensibly unrelated speeded classification task concerning each of a series of nouns, and finally free-recalled the nouns. Some of the words corresponded to certain demands of the problem. It was found that the recall of these words was impaired relative to control words/conditions. Three experiments were performed to examine the effect. In Experiment 1, a word stem completion task replaced classification and surprise recall tasks; in Experiment 2, encoding of words preceded solving the problem and not followed it. Neither relative frequencies of problem-related completions in Experiment 1, nor recall scores for problem-related words in Experiment 2 showed any effect of problem solving on the performance. Experiment 3 replicated the finding of impaired recall with another classification task following problem solving. The effect was much stronger in male than in female subjects; furthermore, females showed impaired recall of words that immediately followed problem related words in the classification task. The results suggest that impaired recall of problem-related words is due to inhibitory defense against task-irrelevant processing they cause in the classification task, and impaired recall of neighboring words results from lack or inefficiency of that inhibition. The results do not support the hypothesis of preconscious selection of solution ideas, which inspired the present line of research.